Theater Day 2020
Theater Day began relatively recently, which did not prevent the triumph from gaining international status.
Theater development in different eras. Theater in Russia
According to historians and art historians, the development of the theater began in ancient times. Religious ceremonies carried out before field work, when people asked for favors and abundance of harvests in the fields, became the prototype; in the fall, ceremonies were held, the purpose of which was to thank the higher forces for the harvest. It is worth noting that experts are in no hurry to call such actions a theater, because rituals were often carried out without prying eyes, while the theater is intended for the audience.
The gods of Greece and Rome were key characters in many myths and legends. Some deities acted as patrons of artisans, warriors, sages, others - were responsible for natural phenomena, which allowed creating a rather primitive impression of the world in the minds of people. The abundance of myths and stories allowed the Greeks to present stories in the form of representations. Thus, the ancient theater appeared, which branched into two directions: tragedy and comedy.
It is worth noting a different attitude towards representatives of theatrical art in different countries of the time: in Greece, the acting profession was welcomed and aroused respect, while in Rome the attitude to this art was exactly the opposite.
The ancient theater ceased to exist simultaneously with the fall of the empire of Rome. The dark times of the Middle Ages began, which rolled back humanity several centuries ago. Any scientific activity was despised, and scientists were pursued by the Inquisition. A similar fate overtook the followers of the ancient theater. Proponents of this art were despised in society.
The theater of the Middle Ages began to develop with gospel stories, but such acts were banned in the 13th century. Replaced came the idea of the life of the saints. Such actions are called miracle. The mystery genre was gaining mass distribution. Performances of this kind were held at fairs and holidays.
The Renaissance era became a key one in the history of European theater: new styles and genres, such as opera and ballet, were emerging. Performances began to be accompanied by music. The number of people involved in creating the presentation has been constantly increasing. With the onset of 1637, Venice presented the world with the first opera house.
It is worth noting the art of the Eastern states, which made a significant contribution to the development of theatrical craft:
- The Shadow Theater is an unusual performance that came from China and has been developing for 17 centuries.
- Kabuki is a representative of the Japanese theater. Actors use make-up and costumes with rich symbols.
Compared to European countries, the theater came to Russia only in the 17th century. It is worth noting that the theater was borrowed from the Western lands, in connection with which there were performances similar to European mysteries. Also, in Russia, the activities bearing the name of booths and skoromokh, which were usually held at fairs, gained popularity.
Today, the theater occupies a key position in the cultural prosperity of the state in Russia. Knowledgeable people are convinced that the theater performs several functions in people's lives:
- High-quality performance allows the viewer to relax and get a lot of positive emotions.
- The theater is the cultural heritage of the state.
- In theatrical performances with a historical bias, the door to past events opens in front of the audience
What date and when is Theater Day celebrated
The world is full of disagreements: conflicts constantly occur between states, and subsequently wars are unleashed, bringing chaos and death to the earth.
International organizations are struggling to prevent possible horror by resorting to various measures. Given that the theater is a peaceful and cultural action at the IX Congress of the International Institute of Theaters, a decision is made to introduce World Theater Day. The event dates back to 1961.
Since then, on March 27, the world annually holds the International Theater Day, the priority goals of which are the development of international theater art and the promotion of peace.
Theaters of Russia. The importance of Moscow in the development of theatrical art
Despite the late arrival of theatrical craft in the vastness of Russia, unique opera houses are located in Moscow, St. Petersburg and other cities. Particular attention is paid to theaters built in the 18th century: the long history and impressive appearance of the building make the image of the theater.
The leading theaters of the Russian Federation include:
- Bolshoi Theater - located in Moscow, erected in 1776. Since its inception, has been key in the state. Within the walls of the Bolshoi Theater, it was an honor to speak only to the most talented and skillful actors.
- Mariinsky Theater - located in St. Petersburg, erected in 1783.
- Mikhailovsky Theater - located in St. Petersburg, erected in 1833.
Moscow, being the heart of the largest state that existed in the 20th century, set the pace in all sectors of culture, including theater. In addition to the Bolshoi Theater, a number of other buildings were built in Moscow during the USSR period:
- Moscow Musical Theater K. S. Stanislavsky and Vl. I. Nemirovich-Danchenko (1941).
- Children's Musical Theater. N.I.Sats (1965).
- Moscow State Academic Chamber Musical Theater named after B.A. Pokrovsky (1972).
Among other things, during the Soviet period, Moscow acted as the National Center of the USSR of the International Theater Institute. More than one generation of famous actors has grown in the capital.
Traditional Theater Day events
Given that the Theater Day is not a day off, the heroes of the occasion will hold a professional holiday in a working environment in full view of the audience. Every day in the walls of theaters, performances based on famous works can be found in any library that respects itself.
Team leaders will congratulate colleagues, the Minister of Culture will address with eloquent congratulations. Performances and competitions will be held at universities of art. The administration of the educational institution will appeal to students with the wishes of health, as well as perseverance in learning, because only through work true mastery is achieved.
The authorities of the country are awarded outstanding theater workers with titles and material prizes. Famous artists are invited on TV for interviews.
To whom congratulations on a holiday
Impressive staff takes part in the production: actors, make-up artists, dressers, screenwriters, directors, lighting technicians, stage designers and others. But the first to meet the audience are the workers of the wardrobe.
The famous Russian actor and director Stanislavsky believed that the performance began from the moment of entering the theater building. Thus, Konstantin Sergeyevich emphasized the importance of all workers in the theater building.
The words of Stanislavsky have survived to this day, in connection with which it is worth congratulating the family, friends and relatives working in the theater, regardless of the position they hold.